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东南亚佛教之泰国佛像
深圳市天禅工艺品公司 / 2015-08-13

          佛教传入东南亚,最早的地区应在今日下缅甸之卑谬或泰国中部之佛统。古代东南亚佛教,小乘和大乘彼此兴废交替,以南传上座部势力较大,到了西元七世纪末,下缅甸、泰国中部信仰上座部,爪哇、苏门答腊则在婆罗门教支配下。至十二世纪,锡兰大力改革佛教,统归为大寺之上座部佛教。此后二百年,缅甸、泰国、高棉、寮国均弘扬以锡兰为传承之上座部佛教。唯有越南自古受中国文化薰陶,受传大乘佛教。至于马来西亚、爪哇、苏门答腊则始终婆罗门教、大乘、小乘佛教并行,迄十三世纪,阿拉伯回教文化传入后,传统宗教亦随之覆灭。

泰国佛像黄金摆件

泰国佛像黄金摆件

  泰国素有“黄袍佛国”的称号,全国有90%以上的人口都信仰佛教。它的首都是曼谷,为世界上佛寺佛像最多的地方,大大小小总共400多个佛教寺院。
  漫步城市中,映进眼帘的是巍峨的佛塔,红顶的寺院,红、绿、黄相间着的泰式鱼脊形屋顶的庙宇,到处充满了神秘的东方情调。每天早上,全城中香烟袅袅,钟声也悠悠,磬声清脆而动听,诵经之声也不绝于耳。寺庙中的和尚、尼姑也在街上慢慢行走,逐家化缘,成了曼谷街头的独特的景观。
  泰国地区,于托罗瓦底时(6-11世纪)开始制造佛像,已发现的共数十种泰国佛像;洛武里时代七种,昌盛时代十种,素可泰时代八种,大城时代七种,曼谷乐达纳歌信时代共有四十种泰国佛像。
  泰国人民相信,各个时代的佛像造型,均隐含反映该时代的民情风俗和国运之兴衰。泰国各时代佛像其具有一定代表性者的某些特点给大家参考。
  一、 托罗瓦底佛像:佛面方、佛鼻扁、佛唇厚、佛眉弯似翅膀状、螺状佛发大,佛顶光呈圆状,佛下巴有一道横线。
  二、 洛武里时代佛像:佛面方、佛眉直、下巴平、胸前袈裟作横截式。
  三、 昌盛时代前期佛像:佛面圆,佛鼻弯、佛眉高、佛嘴小、螺状佛发较大、佛光似含苞莲花、佛下巴作“结子”状,佛身壮硕,佛胸圆大,袈裟前端作蜈蚣齿状,常作双盘式结跏跌。
  四、 昌盛时代后期佛像:佛面鹅蛋形、佛口微开、螺状佛发小、佛光作火焰状、佛身壮硕、佛胸圆大、袈裟前端作蜈蚣齿状。
  五、 素可泰佛像:佛面作鹅蛋形,佛眉弯、佛口微开、螺状佛发小、佛光作火焰状、佛腰细、袈裟长至佛脐、作单盘式结跏跌。
  六、 乌通王和大城时代佛像:佛面方、佛鼻扁、佛口阔、下巴平、螺状佛发小、佛光作火焰状、额发间有一条表示细发的线状、佛身壮硕、佛腰细、袈裟作横截状、常作单盘式结跏跌坐。
 
Buddhism was introduced to Southeast Asia, the first region should Prome Myanmar Buddha or the middle of Thailand under the system today. Ancient Southeast Asian Buddhism, Theravada and Mahayana Rise and Fall of each other alternately, pass south of Theravada large forces to the seven century AD, under Myanmar, Thailand and Central Theravada belief, Java, Sumatra, in the Brahmanic domination. To the twelfth century, major overhaul of Ceylon Buddhist, grouped as Theravada Buddhism temple of. Since then two hundred years, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos are to promote the heritage of Ceylon Theravada Buddhism. Only Vietnam has always been nurtured by Chinese culture, Shouchuan Mahayana Buddhism. As for Malaysia, Java, Sumatra is always Brahmanism, Mahayana, Theravada Buddhism parallel, until the thirteenth century, after the Arab Muslim acculturation, religious traditions also come to destruction.

Thailand is known as "yellow robe Buddha" in the title, there are more than 90 percent of the population are Buddhists. Its capital Bangkok, is the largest Buddhist temple in the world where a total of more than 400 Buddhist temples, large and small.
Stroll the city, reflected into the eye is the towering pagoda, red roof of the monastery, red, green, yellow and white fish with Thai temple roof ridge, full of mysterious Oriental flavor. Every morning, the entire city cigarette curl, bells long, crisp and pleasant chime sound, the sound of chanting voices. Temple monks, nuns are walking slowly down the street, house to house begging has become a unique landscape of the streets of Bangkok.
In Thailand, in the end when 托罗瓦 (6-11 century) began manufacturing statues were dozens of statues have been found in Thailand; Los Buri age seven, ten prosperous era, the era of eight Sukhothai, Ayutthaya era seven, at Bangkok Dana song music channel There are forty kinds of Thai Buddhist era.
Thai people believe that Buddha statues of each era, both implicitly reflect local customs and fortunes rise and fall of the era. Certain features of each era statues in Thailand which has a representative who is for your reference.
First, Tuoluo Wa bottom Buddha: Buddha's side, Buddhism flat nose, thick lips, Buddha, Buddha-like winged eyebrows curved, spiral-shaped Buddha Fat, Foding light cylindrical shape, Buddha chin a horizontal line.
Second, Los Buri era Buddha: Buddha face side, Buddha eyebrows straight, flat chin, chest robe as cross-type.
Third, the prosperous era of the early Buddha: Buddha face round, bent nose Buddha, Buddha high brow, mouth small Buddha, Buddha made a large spiral-shaped, like the Buddha lotus bud, Buddha chin as a "knot" shape, Buddha body sturdy, Buddha chest Round big, front-end for the centipede robe toothed, often for double disc Results Organisation fall.
Fourth, prosperous era of the late Buddha: Buddha face oval, opening of the mouth of Buddha, the Buddha made a small spiral-shaped, as flaming Buddha, Buddha body burly, big round Buddha chest, front-end for the centipede tooth robe.
Fifth, the Sukhothai Buddha: Buddha face as oval, curved eyebrows Buddha, Buddha opening of the mouth, made a small spiral-shaped Buddha, Buddha as flaming, fine Buddha waist, long robes to Buddhist navel, as a single disc Results Organisation down.
Six black-Wang and Ayutthaya era Buddha: Buddha face square, flat nose Buddha, Buddha mouth wide, chin level, made a small spiral-shaped Buddha, Buddha as flaming, between the amount of fat there is a linear representation of fine hair, Buddhas sturdy, thin waist Buddha, cross-sectional shape as robe, often as a single disc Results Organisation fell.
 

 

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