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铜雕工艺品历史,工艺,日常清理
深圳市天禅工艺品公司 / 2015-08-13

        铜雕工艺品产生于商周,是以铜料为胚,运用雕刻、铸塑等手法制作的一种雕塑。铜雕艺术主要表现了造型、质感、纹饰的美,多用于表现神秘有威慑力的宗教题材。铜佛像就是其中的一种。

Bronze crafts produced in the Shang and Zhou dynasties, with copper as an embryo, with a sculpture carving, casting techniques such as making. The main performance of the bronze art style, texture, decorative beauty, used for the performance of mysterious deterrence of religious themes. Copper Buddha is one of them.
铜雕豹子
铸造方法
Casting method
铜雕工艺品的铸造方法主要有两种,即失蜡和模具法。现代新出现的由朱炳仁创造的熔铜法,掌握的人群比较少。
There are two main types of casting method of bronze handicraft, the lost wax method and mold. The modern new melting copper method created by Zhu Bingren, master the relatively small crowd.
失蜡法:用蜡制成模,外敷造型材料,成为整体铸型。
The lost wax method: made from wax mold, with other materials, become whole mold.
模具法:运用广泛,大型铜雕一般都要经过分件浇铸,然后衔接成一个整体。
Method: the mold is widely used, large bronze usually after casting, and then connected into a whole.
熔铜法:运用无模可控熔铸工艺,“无模”使铜液自然流畅而解形;“可控”使铜液在艺术家掌控中熔意。
Copper melting method: using the dieless controllable casting process, "dieless" the copper liquid natural and smooth and the solution form; "controllable" enable liquid copper in artists to take control in molten meaning.
铸造法:运用无模可控熔铸工艺,“无模”使铜液自然流畅而解形;“可控”使铜液在艺术家掌控中熔意。
Casting method: using the dieless controllable casting process, "dieless" the copper liquid natural and smooth and the solution form; "controllable" enable liquid copper in artists to take control in molten meaning.
古法失蜡铸造:
Ancient method of wax casting:
铜器的制作方法多种多样,但以失蜡铸造这一千年古法最为复杂,也最为精致,流传至今的佛像无不采用这种方法,时至今日,佛像面目依然清晰传神。在铸制一些无法脱模的铜器时,古人发明了失蜡法工艺。如北魏以后大量铸制各种姿式的空心铜佛像及一些鸟兽尊等,这些铜器的制造,因不可能象范铸法那样采用在陶模上夯制泥范的工艺铸制,只能采用失蜡法工艺铸得。
A variety of bronze making method, but to lost wax casting the Millennium ancient is the most complex, and most exquisite, spread so far the Buddha without using this method, today, Buddha face still clear and vivid. In the cast to release the bronze, the ancients invented the lost wax process. Such as after Wei and large cast of various postures of the hollow copper statue of Buddha and some birds statue etc., these bronze manufacture, because it is not possible to take like the fan Zhufa that used in ceramic mold compaction of mud process casting, only the use of the lost wax process cast.
其工艺是先用泥料捏出器物的泥芯,将蜡料制成薄片后包在泥芯上经精雕细刻,使蜡料成为欲铸的器物蜡型、焊上蜡质水口、在蜡型外包裹泥料,经阴干、焙烧脱蜡后成为有泥芯的空型,然后可熔铜浇注。
The process is first clay used pinch clay core of utensils, the wax material made of thin package in the mud core through the carved, the wax become want to cast the objects of wax type, welded on the wax nozzle, in wax coated with mud, after drying and roasting dewaxing become empty type of clay core, and pouring of molten copper.
现代制作蜡模的方法,是先把需要铸造的器件、器物或作品雕刻成型称为母模,如果大量成批生产,用母模制成阴模,在阴模内注蜡,制成蜡模;把蜡模成组或单件安上浇口和冒口,在蜡模内、外表面涂上配制好了的水玻璃与石英粉的混合涂料,待风干,再涂混合涂料后洒上石英砂,反复多次后,将模壳浸入90度水中脱蜡,再经焙烧后以备浇铸。如果进行青铜文物复制,应在原件实物上翻制分块石膏模型,或者采用硅橡胶分块制成阴模,在制出的阴模内制蜡型,卸去模型,然后把蜡模对照原件进行修补这样才算完成蜡模的制作。
Modern wax pattern making method, is the first need to cast the devices, objects or works of sculpture molding known as master mold, if a large number of mass production, with a master mold made of female die, in the negative mould injection wax, wax is made; the wax group or single install gate and riser, in wax and coated on the outer surface of the preparation of water glass and quartz powder mixed coating, drying to be, then mixed coating sprinkle on quartz sand, repeated several times, mold shell immersed in 90 degree water dewaxing, then calcined to prepare for casting. If copy bronze relics should be in the original material of gypsum block model, or using silicone rubber block made of female die, in the negative mould wax type, unloading the model, then the wax control original repair so to finish wax production.
古代的失蜡法工艺与现代的失蜡法工艺有着较大的差别。古代失蜡法工艺也是多样化的,有的是先在木板上绘制雕刻纹饰、图样,分二片或多片,用蜡填满,把蜡片拨出,敷到泥芯上粘合在一起,补上缝隙,完成蜡模,上好支钉,附上粘性泥土、凉干、焙烧出蜡、浇铸。
There is a big difference between the process of the ancient lost wax and the process of the modern loss of wax.. Ancient lost wax process is diverse, some to the board drawing decorative sculpture, drawings, divided into two or more pieces, filled with wax. The wax sheet set aside, apply to mud core bonding together, fill the gap, the completion of the wax pattern, good nail, attach a cohesive soil, dry and cool, calcination wax, casting.
历史
History
中国历史上重要的铜雕艺术品有西周的“伯矩”鬲,晚商的“司母戊”鼎以及汉代的“马踏飞燕”。
The history of China's important bronze works of art, the Western Zhou Dynasty, "Bo moment" Ge, "Si Muwu" Ding of the late Shang and Han Dynasty "horse riding Chebi".
铜器。在我国古代多指青铜器,流行于新石器时代晚期至秦汉时代,以商周器物最为精美。最初出现的是小型工具或饰物。夏代始有青铜容器和兵器。商中期,青铜器品种已很丰富,并出现了铭文和精细的花纹。商晚期至西周早期,是青铜器发展的鼎盛时期,器型多种多样,浑厚凝重,铭文逐渐加长,花纹繁褥富丽。随后,青铜器胎体开始变薄,纹饰逐渐简化。春秋晚期至战国,由于铁器的推广使用,铜制工具越来越少。奏汉时期,随着瓷器和漆器进入日常生活,铜制容器品种减少,装饰简单,多为素面,胎体也更为轻薄。中国古代铜器,是我们的祖先对人类物质文明的巨大贡献,虽然从考古资料来看,我国铜器的出现,[1] 晚于世界上其他一些地方,但是就铜器的使用规模、铸造工艺、造型艺术及品种而言,世界上没有一个地方的铜器可以与中国古代铜器相比拟。这也是中国古代铜器在世界艺术史上占有独特地位并引起普遍重视的原因之一。
Bronze. In ancient China the bronze, popular in the late Neolithic Age to the Han Dynasty, with the finest implements. The first appeared is small tools or accessories. The beginning of bronze vessels and weapons. In mid - Shang, the bronze wares were rich, and the inscriptions and fine patterns appeared.. Late Shang to early Western Zhou is the heyday of the bronze ware development, type is varied, vigorous and dignified, inscriptions gradually extended, pattern propagation mattress richly. Then, the bronze matrix began to thin, decoration gradually reduced. The spring and Autumn period to the Warring States period, due to the promotion of the use of iron, copper tools less and less. The Han period, with the porcelain and lacquer ware into everyday life, reduced copper container species, decoration simple, plain, tire body and more frivolous. The Chinese ancient bronze, is our ancestor's great contribution to human material civilization, although from the archaeological point of view, the emergence of China's bronze, [1] later than some other local, but bronze using scale, casting process, plastic arts and varieties, the world no bronze of a place can be comparable with the ancient Chinese bronze ware. This is the Chinese ancient bronze art history in the world occupies a unique position and one of the reasons caused widespread attention.
铜雕工艺品的清理:
Bronze crafts cleaning:
伴随着铸铜雕塑的产生和发展,在城市铜雕和人物铜雕在大街小巷都可以看到。对于如何保养维护这些铜雕,可以从三方面进行。
With the emergence and development of bronze sculpture, bronze and bronze figures in the city can be seen in the high streets and back lanes. How to maintain the sculpture, can be carried out from three aspects.
一。苯骈三氮唑法,防止水蒸气和空气污染物的侵蚀;
A. Three benzo triazole method to prevent erosion, water vapor and air pollutants;
二。氧化银法,适于斑点状局部腐蚀的器物及有金属镶嵌物的器物;
Two. Silver method, suitable for local corrosion spots like artifacts and metal inlay artifacts;
三。碱液浸泡法,使铜的氯化物逐渐转换为稳定的铜的碳酸盐。
Three. Alkali soaking method, copper chloride gradually converted to stable copper carbonate.

 

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